Our young people in South Africa are not educated about the various forms of Prevention methods they can access in their local health facilities, hence we come across young people complaining about the high rate of teenage pregnancy they encounter in their communities in our various districts of implementation. The high rate of teenage pregnancy is an issue that can be dealt with if our local clinics were suitable and accessible for young people, meaning a youth friendly service in every local clinic is ideal.
There are various contraceptives that young people can access in their local health facility that they don’t know about, i.e:
The condom is the only form of contraception that protects against most STIs as well as preventing pregnancy. This method of contraception can be used on demand, is hormone free and can easily be carried with you. And it comes in male and female varieties.Male condoms are rolled onto an erect penis and act as a physical barrier, preventing sexual fluids from passing between people during sex. The female condom is placed into the vagina right before sex. Based on typical use, the female condom is not quite as effective as the male latex condom and it may take a little practice to get used to.
•Pros include: It’s the best protection against STIs; can be used on demand; hormone free.
•Cons include: It can tear or come off during sex if not used properly; some people are allergic to latex condoms.
The Oral Contraceptive Pill
It’s the little tablet taken once a day. The oral contraceptive pill is the most commonly reported method of contraception used by Australian women. There are a few different types of pill to choose from, so it’s about finding the one that’s right for you. The combined pill contains estrogen and progestin and mini pill contains only one hormone, a progestin. The pill can have many benefits, however remembering to take it on time is a must.
•Pros of taking the pill include: Highly effective when used correctly; permits sexual spontaneity and doesn’t interrupt sex; some pills may even reduce heavy and painful periods and/or may have a positive effect on acne.
•Cons include: Forgetting to take your pill means it won’t be as effective; it can only be used by women; is not suitable for women who can’t take estrogen-containing contraception; it does not protect against STIs.
Intrauterine Device (IUD)
This small, T-shaped device is made from made of material containing progesterone hormone or plastic and copper and is fitted inside a woman’s uterus by a trained healthcare provider. It’s a long-acting and reversible method of contraception, which can stay in place for three to 10 years, depending on the type.
Some IUDs contain hormones that are gradually released to prevent pregnancy. The IUD can also be an effective emergency contraception if fitted by a healthcare professional within five days (120 hours) of having unprotected sex.
•Prosinclude: IUDs containing coppers are 99% effective and the ones containing hormones are 99.8% effective, so you’re about as protected as you possibly can be by a contraceptive method.
•Cons include: Irregular bleeding and spotting occurs in the first six months of use; requires a trained healthcare provider for insertion and removal; does not protect against STIs.
The Contraceptive Implant
In this method, a small, flexible rod is placed under the skin in a woman’s upper arm, releasing a form of the hormone progesterone. The hormone stops the ovary releasing the egg and thickens the cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to enter the womb. The implant requires a small procedure using local anesthetic to fit and remove the rod and needs to be replaced after three years.
•Pros of the implant include: Highly effective; doesn’t interrupt sex; is a long-lasting, reversible contraceptive option.
•Cons include: Requires a trained healthcare provider for insertion and removal; sometimes there can be irregular bleeding initially; does not protect against STIs.
The Contraceptive Injection
The injection contains a synthetic version of the hormone progestogen. It is given into a woman’s buttock or the upper arm, and over the next 12 weeks the hormone is slowly released into your bloodstream.
•Pros: The injection lasts for up to three months; is very effective; permits sexual spontaneity and doesn’t interrupt sex.
•Cons: The injection may cause disrupted periods or irregular bleeding; it requires keeping track of the number of months used; it does not protect against STIs.
Emergency Contraception Pill (The ‘Morning After’ Pill)
The Emergency Contraception Pill can be used to prevent pregnancy after sex if contraception wasn’t used, a condom has broken during sex, or a woman has been sexually assaulted.While it is sometimes call the ‘Morning After’ pill, it can actually be effective for up to five days after having unprotected sex. The sooner it is taken, the more effective it is; when taken in the first three days after sex, it prevents about 85% of expected pregnancies.This pill contains special doses of female hormones. Any woman can take the emergency contraception pill, even those who cannot take other oral contraceptive pills. It can be bought over the counter at a pharmacy or chemist without a prescription.The common side effects of the emergency contraceptive include nausea, vomiting and the next period may be early or delayed. Emergency contraception does not protect against STIs.
This method consists of a flexible plastic ring constantly releasing hormones that is placed in the vagina by the woman. It stays in place for three weeks, and then you remove it, take a week off then pop another one in. The ring releases the hormones oestrogen and progestogen. These are the same hormones used in the combined oral contraceptive pill, but at a lower dose.
•Pros include: You can insert and remove a vaginal ring yourself; this contraceptive method has few side effects, allows control of your periods and allows your fertility to return quickly when the ring is removed.
•Cons include: It is not suitable for women who can’t take oestrogen-containing contraception; you need to remember to replace it at the right time; does not protect against STIs.
Sterilization is the process of completely taking away the body’s ability to reproduce through open or minimal invasion surgery. It is a permanent method of contraception, suitable for people who are sure they never want children or do not want any more children. Sterilization is available for both women and men and is performed in a hospital with general anesthesia.If you are thinking about sterilization, issues to talk with your doctor about include your reasons for wanting to be sterilized, whether other methods of contraception might be more suitable and any side effects, risks and complications of the procedure.
You take one pill each day. The pill is more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy if you take it correctly. However, in typical use it is about 92% effective.
The Depo Provera injection is another type of hormonal contraception. You get an injection every three months. If you get your injections on time, Depo Provera is more than 99% effective but typically it is 97% effective. There are two types of pill:
•combined oral contraceptive pill
•progestogen-only contraceptive pill.
There are two options for emergency contraception: the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) or a copper IUD.
Emergency contraception can be used to prevent pregnancy if:
•You haven’t used protection
•Your normal contraception fails e.g. condom splits
•You have missed more than one contraceptive pill
•You have been vomiting or had diarrhoea while on the pill
•You have missed your injection
•You have been forced to have sex without contraception.
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Written by Berlina Lerutoane, Advocacy & Lobbying Coordinator